Weaving patterns in textile

The way the warp and weft are intertwined determines the fabric’s weave or design. The smallest unit of the weave, known as the pattern or repetition, is repeated to create the desired design in the fabric. Warp and weft threads are interlaced in a pattern during weaving to create woven fabric. Fabric is created using a design called a weave structure. Fabrics are produced in a huge variety of styles. The many different weaves used in modern textiles are variations of a few basic weaves that date back to ancient times. Plain, twill, and satin are three main types of weave. All other weaves are variations on these fundamental ones or a combination of them.


Types of Fabric Weaves:

  • Plain Weave
  • Twill Weave
  • Satin/Sateen
  • Honeycomb Weave
  • Huck a Back Weave
  • Crepe Weave
  • Bedford Cord Weave
  • Welts and Pique
  • Mock Leno Weave



Plain Weave:

Each warp yarn in a plain weave crosses across the opposing weft threads. The simplest and most widely used weave is the plain weave, in which the warp and weft threads alternately interlace to create the most interlacements by which the structure gains stiffness and stability. Plain weave is given unique names in commerce, including broadcloth, taffeta, shantung, poplin, calico, tabby, and alpaca. To weave its fundamental unit, at least two ends and two picks are needed. It takes a minimum of two heald frames to complete this weave, but more (more than two basic weave heald frames) can be used. The warp and filler threads cross one another alternately in this type of weaving. It is used in clothing such as cambric, muslin, blankets, canvas, dhothis, saris, and suits.


Plain weaves are basically three types. They are:


  • Warp Rib
  • Weft Rib
  • Matt Weave


Warp rib:

Warp ribs are a type of plain weave that has been modified. It differs from simple plain weaves in that it has 1/1 interlacements in the filling direction. The formation of cords, ridges, or texture across the warp direction of the fabric is the result of this modified interlacement. The grouping of the filling yarns creates these cords or ridges. The warp rib repeat is always on two warp yarns. The first warp yarn follows the formula, while the second warp yarn runs in the opposite direction. It requires at least two healed frames, but multiple of these can also be used. The number of weft yarns in a repeat unit of this weave equals the sum of the digits in the warp rib formula. For example, 2/2 warp rib necessitates the use of two warp yarns and four weft yarns.

Warp rib are two types:

  • Regular Warp Rib
  • Irregular Warp Rib


Weft rib:

Plain weaves can also be modified with weft ribs. It differs from simple plain weaves in that it has 1/1 interlacements in the warp direction. This modified interlacement causes the formation of cords, ridges, or texture across the fabric’s weft direction. The grouping of the warp yarns creates these cords or ridges. Weft rib is always repeated on two weft yarns. The first weft yarn follows the formula, while the second weft yarn runs in the opposite direction. It requires at least two healed frames, but multiple of these can also be used. The number of warp yarns in a repeat unit of this weave equals the sum of the digits in the warp rib formula. For example, 2/2 weft rib necessitates the use of two weft yarns and four warp yarns.

Weft ribs are two types:

  • Regular Weft Rib
  • Irregular Weft Rib


Matt weave:

This weave is made by extending the plain weave in both the warp and weft directions at the same time, so that two or more threads work similarly in both directions. The same size squares appear on both sides of the fabric in this weave, indicating the same number of warp and weft yarns on the front and back of the fabric. This weave necessitates the use of at least two healed frames. The matt weaves can be extended further to give more prominence, but this is limited due to the loose structure and can be modified in a variety of ways. The warp ends that work together tend to twist around each other in matt weave. To avoid yarn twisting, warp ends that work similarly are drawn from different reed slits.

Matt weave are three types:

  • Regular Matt Weave
  • Irregular Matt Weave
  • Fancy Matt Weave


Basket Weaves

Basket weaves are created by weaving warp and filling ribs together. Warp and filling yarns are grouped and interlaced in basket weaves. The sum of the digits in the formula equals the number of warp and filling yarns in the unit cell. A minimum of two harnesses are required for basket weaving. Basket weaves are classified as either common or uncommon formula. The first warp yarn and the first filling yarn in a common formula basket weave follow the same formula. The first warp and first filling in an unusual formula basket weave are calculated differently.

Other plain weaves:

  • Wicker weave
  • Chiffon
  • Georgette
  • Shantung
  • Seersucker
  • Regular basket weave
  • Irregular basket weave
  • Monks cloth
  • Oxford


Twill Weave:

Twill weave is another basic weave that is well known for the formation of diagonal lines in the fabric as a result of its interlacing pattern. This weave and its derivatives are used for decoration. When compared to plain weave, twill has closer yarn setting due to less interlacement, imparting greater weight and good drape. The outward and upward movement of the interlacing pattern in simple twill always imparts a diagonal line to this design. Twill is classified as right-hand or left-hand based on the direction of the propagation of the twill line. Twill weaves are more tightly woven, heavier, and stronger than comparable fibre and yarn size weaves. They can be made in a variety of styles. Drill cloth, khakhi uniforms, denim cloth, blankets, shirtings, hangings, and soft furnishings are all examples of twill weaves in use.


There are various types of twill weave:

  • Zigzag weave
  • Warp faced twill
  • Weft faced twill
  • Balanced twill
  • Pointed Twill
  • Horizontal Pointed Twill
  • Vertical Pointed Twill
  • Herringbone Twill
  • Horizontal Herringbone Twill
  • Vertical Herringbone Twill
  • Skip Twill
  • Diamond Weave
  • Pointed Twill Base Diamond
  • Herringbone Twill Base Diamond
  • Combination Twill
  • Combined Twill
  • Broken Twill
  • Elongated Twill
  • Transposed Twill


Some examples of twill weave derivatives:


Zigzag weave – A zigzag effect is produced when the direction of the diagonal in a twill fabric is reversed periodically across the width. Zigzag weave is created by combining two equal repeat S and Z twill weaves.

Diamond weave – Diamond weaves are created by combining two equal-repeat symmetrical zigzag weaves. Diamond patterns are symmetrical both vertically and horizontally.

Herringbone weave – The twill direction is reversed periodically in Herringbone weave, as it is in zigzag weave, but at the point of reversal, the order of interlacement is also reversed, and the twill line resumes as usual.

Diaper weave – Diaper weaves are created by combining two Herringbone designs. Diaper designs are symmetrical diagonally.



Satin/sateen is a basic weave with no regular pattern, unlike twill. The sateen weave is distinguished by the use of floating yarns to produce a high lustre on one side of a fabric. The fabric’s surface is either warp or weft faced. Fabrics produced in satin weave are more lustrous than fabrics produced in other weaves. Satin is warp faced, which means that the warp threads are visible on the entire surface of the fabric except for one thread interlacement with another series of yarn. If it is weft faced, it is known as sateen, which means that the fabric surface will mostly show the weft threads. The single inter­lacement of warp and weft threads in a single repeating unit distinguishes this weave. Among the basic weaves, these have the fewest interlacement points. As a result, it improves the lustre and smoothness of the fabric’s surface. Along with these properties, denser thread packing is possible, resulting in the highest achievable cover factor in this weave. This weave allows for the use of a cotton warp and a silk filling, with the majority of the silk appearing on the fabric’s surface. Originally an all silk fabric with a fine rich glossy surface formed in a warp satin weave, it was used for ribbons, trimmings, dresses, linings, and so on

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